It may, on first consideration appear somewhat difficult to differentiate between the action of Venus, the “lesser Fortune” and that of Jupiter, the “Greater Fortune”. Both represent the expansive and altruistic spirit. But Venus is the handmaiden of the Sun and she is consequently attached to the vital force, even as Jupiter is more closely an emanation of Neptune, the other extreme of the system, the Soul. The altruism of Venus, therefore, means love in a quite conventional and often selfish or personal sense; her expansiveness is often mere amiability, possibly assumed in order to gain some end associated with the instinct of self-preservation; and, finally, Venus is altogether more material and, so to speak, fleshly, than Jupiter. But religion itself is psychically correlated with both sex and the drama, and the reader will note that Jupiter in certain signs Scorpio for example becomes intensely sexual in character. Venus in any sign has so much connotation or reference that it is very necessary to take into consideration not only the sign in which it is placed, but also its aspects to other planets before judging of its effects. But the importance of the impact of the different signs is very great. In fact, the more material a planet is, the more easily it is influenced. We see no such violent commotion in the vaster planets; Uranus in Aries is not so different from Uranus in Libra, but Venus in Gemini is utterly different from Venus in Scorpio. This is all as it should be, and is in consonance with Initiated Theory. In dealing with Venus on the lines hitherto followed with the other planets, we are confronted with a difficulty peculiar to the nature of her own influence. It is easy to observe most of the effects of other planets in the life, character, and work of great men, but we know little of the inner details of their domestic and intimate relations. Alexander the Great, may have beaten his wife, and Cromwell may have been a very clever and tactful father, but in the majority of those examples which have hitherto served us so well, we know little or nothing of the private life. And it is essentially, and first of all, the private life that Venus influences. She has, of course, other significances. In the horoscope of Emperor Franz Josef, the dominance of Venus implies that all his gains had to come through peaceful channels, that war could never serve his ends; and this was the case. Similarly, the powerfully placed and well aspected Venus of Czar Alexander II reacted on his policy, as well as on his character; but, as said before, these are exceptions. In many cases, we find stern conquerors with polite manners, and, conversely, weak statesmen who are autocratic in their homes. There is also the question of the external and objective Venus. Most often its effect occurs in the petty matters; it is difficult to trace it in big affairs, for these come so much under Uranus and Jupiter that Venus takes but a secondary part in the determination of such events. The upshot of all these considerations is that one is compelled to rely on the observations of private research; and here the proof is not producible, both because the names of everyday natives could mean nothing to the general reader, and also because such details would be matters of a confidential nature, and, in a good many cases, unprintable. Even if specified, such an account would need verifications; while, in the case of people well known to every student of history, the facts speak for themselves and are convincing. The reader must, therefore, (to sum up the situation) be content to rely, to a certain extent, in this chapter, upon the authority of the author. This caveat is uttered emphatically, in order to assure the reader that there is no confusion in the mind of the author with regard to what is clear and convincing evidence patent to the world, and what, though in reality no less reliable, rests upon proofs not thus obvious.